## Arithmetic and Geometric Functions

Basic mathematical functions, as well as number field manipulation like truncation and rounding.

# Abs

 Description Returns the absolute value of a number. Remark Example Ex. Abs(-23.1) – returns 23.1.

# Acos

 Description Returns the arccosine, or inverse cosine, of a number. Remark The input must be from -1 to 1.The returned angle is given in radians in the range 0 (zero) to pi. If you want to convert the result from radians to degrees, then multiply it by 180/PI() or use the DEGREES function. Example Ex. Acos(-.231) – returns 1.80390168255052.

# Acosh

 Description Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of the given number. Remark The input must be a real number greater than or equal to 1. Example Ex. Acosh(10) – returns 2.993223.

# Asin

 Description Returns the arcsine of the given number in radians, in the range -Pi/2 to Pi/2. Remark The input is the sine of the angle you want and must be in the range from -1 to 1. Example Ex. Asin(-0.5) – returns 0.5236.

# Asinh

 Description Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number. Remark The input can be any real number.NOTE. asinh(sinh(n)) returns n. Example Ex. Asinh(-2.5) – returns -1.64723.

# Atan

 Description Returns the arctangent, inverse tangent of a number. Remark The input can be any real number.Atan returns an angle given in radians in the range -Pi/2 to Pi/2. Example Ex. Atan(1) – returns 0.785398 (pi/4).

# Atan2

 Description Returns the angle from the x-axis to a line containing the origin (0, 0) and a point with coordinates (x,y). Remark The input requires two values, the x and y coordinates.NOTE. If both x,y are 0, then Atan2 will return the error #Div/0!A negative result represents a clockwise angle. Example Ex. Atan2(1, 1) – returns 0.785398 (pi/4).

# Atanh

 Description Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number. Remark The input must be from -1 to 1.NOTE. Atanh(tanh(n)) returns n. Example Ex. Atanh(.76159416) – returns 1 (approximately).

# Ceiling

 Description Returns the number rounded up, away from zero, to the nearest multiple of significance. Remark The input requires two values, the number to be rounded and the multiple of significance.Regardless of the sign of number, a value is rounded up when adjusted away from zero.NOTE. If the argument is non-numeric, then Ceiling returns the error #VALUE! Example Ex. Ceiling(4.42,.05) – returns 4.45.

# Cos

 Description Returns the cosine, of an angle in radians. Remark The returned angle is given in radians in the range 0 (zero) to pi. If you want to convert the result from radians to degrees, then multiply it by 180/PI() or use the DEGREES function. Example Ex. Cos(1.047) – returns 0.500171.

# Cosh

 Description Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number. Example Ex. Cos(4) – returns 27.30823.

# Even

 Description Returns a number rounded up to the nearest even integer. Remark Regardless of the sign of number, a value is rounded away from zero.NOTE. If the number is non-numeric, then EVEN returns the error #VALUE! Example Ex. Even(1.5) – returns 2.

# Exp

 Description Returns e raised to the power of the input. Remark Exp is the inverse of Ln, the natural logarithm. Example Ex. Exp(1) – returns 2.718282 (the approximate value of e).

# Fixed

 Description Returns the first argument rounded to the number of decimal places specified in the second argument. Remark Takes three arguments:1. The number you want to round.2. The number of digits to the right of the decimal to include.3. (Optional) TRUE/FALSE whether to omit commas. The default is FALSE (includes commas as normal). Example Ex. Fixed(1234.5678, 2) – returns 1,234.56.

# Floor

 Description Rounds the number down, toward zero, to the nearest multiple of significance. Remark The input requires two values, the number to be rounded, and the multiple of significance.Regardless of the sign of number, a value is down toward zero.NOTE. If the argument is non-numeric, then Floor returns the error #VALUE! Example Ex. Floor(2.6, .5) – returns 2.5.

# GlobalNumericFormat

 Description Returns a numeric string value whose format is based on the session format. Remark Only accepts numeric values as input. Example Ex. GlobalNumericFormat({Region.Population})- returns the value based on the session format.

# Int

 Description Rounds a number down to the nearest integer. Remark The input must be a real number. Example Ex. Int(2.6) – returns 2.

# Ln

 Description Returns the natural logarithm of a number. Remark LN is the inverse of the EXP function. Example Ex. Ln(86) – returns 4.454347.

# Log

 Description Returns the logarithm of a number to the base you specify. Remark The first input is the number and the second is the base (if omitted base 10 used). Example Ex. Log(100) – returns 2.

# Log10

 Description Returns the base 10 logarithm of a number. Remark Example Ex. Log10(86) – returns 1.934498451.

# Mod

 Description Returns the remainder after first argument is divided by the second argument. Remark The second argument must not be 0. Example Ex. Mod(27,5) – returns 2.

# Odd

 Description Returns a number rounded up to the nearest odd integer. Remark The input must be a real number. Odd always rounds away from zero. Example Ex. Mod(1.5) – returns 3.

# Pi

 Description Returns the number 3.14159265358979, the mathematical constant pi, accurate to 15 digits. Remark Example Ex. Pi() – returns 3.14159265358979.

# Power

 Description Returns the result of the first argument raised to the second argument. Remark The operator ^ may be used instead of this function. Example Ex. Power(5,2) – returns 25.

# Product

 Description Returns the product of the arguments. Remark The * symbol may be used in place of product.Arguments must be numbers, cell references or text representations of numbers. Example Ex. Product(5,2) – returns 10. Also 5 * 2 - returns 10.

# Quotient

 Description Returns the integer portion of a division. Remark The / symbol may be used in place of product.This function discards the remainder of the division. Example Ex. Quotient(5,2) – returns 2. Also 5/2 – returns 2.

# Rand

 Description Returns an evenly-distributed random number between 0 and 1 (inclusive). Remark To generate a random real number between a and b, use: RAND()*(b-a)+a. Example Ex. Rand() – returns a random number between 0 and 1.

# Round

 Description Returns a rounded number. Remark Takes one or two input:The number to round.2.  The number of decimal places desired. Example Ex. Round(5.236, 2) – returns 5.24

# Sin

 Description Returns the sine of the given angle. Remark The returned angle is given in radians in the range 0 (zero) to pi. If you want to convert the result from radians to degrees, then multiply it by 180/PI() or use the DEGREES function. Example Ex. Sin(1.047) – returns .0865926611287823.

# Sinh

 Description Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number. Remark Example Ex. Sinh(4) – returns 27.1899171971278.

# Sqrt

 Description Returns the positive square root of the argument. Remark If the input is negative Sqrt returns the error #NUM!. Example Ex. Sqrt(25) – returns 5.

# Tan

 Description Returns the tangent of the given angle. Remark The returned angle is given in radians in the range 0 (zero) to pi. If you want to convert the result from radians to degrees, then multiply it by 180/PI() or use the DEGREES function. Example Ex. Tan(.785) – returns .99920.

# Tanh

 Description Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number. Remark Example Ex. Tanh(-2) – returns .96403.

# Truncate

 Description Truncates a number to an integer by removing the fractional part of the number. Remark INT and TRUNC are different only when using negative numbers: TRUNC (-4.3) returns -4, but INT (-4.3) returns -5 because -5 is the lower number. Example Ex. Truncate(9.9) – returns 9.